Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder in which the bones become soft, porous, thin, and fragile, and reduce in bone mass. The bones also lose calcium and other mineral components and are more prone to fractures.
Different types of Osteoporosis
During childhood and up to the age of mid-thirties, two processes called Reabsorption (old bone is broken down and removed by the cells called osteoclasts) and Formation(old bone is replaced and formation of new bone takes place by cells called osteoblasts) take place. More bone is formed than it is lost. After the age of mid-thirties, bone is lost at a faster pace than it is formed. This loss of bone mass is called primary osteoporosis. Primary osteoporosis is further divided into two types: post-menopausal (Type-1) and senile osteoporosis (Type-2)
1. Post Menopausal Osteoporosis (Type-1)
Postmenopausal osteoporosis generally develops in women after menopause. It occurs when the female sex hormone estrogen, which helps to protect against bone loss, decreases in the body. This process leads to an increased loss of calcium from the bones.
2. Senile Osteoporosis (Type-2)
Senile osteoporosis generally develops after the age of 70 years. Women are two times more likely to develop osteoporosis as compared to men. It occurs when bone breakdown overcomes bone formation. It also results from age-related reduction in vitamin D synthesis. In older women, type 1 and type 2 osteoporosis often occur together.
Osteoporosis caused by prolonged use of certain drugs, diseases, and lifestyle factors is known as secondary osteoporosis. Prolonged use of certain medications such as corticosteroids, blood thinners, and drugs used for the treatment of cancer, psoriasis, asthma, and antidepressants can cause secondary osteoporosis.
Diseases such as hyperthyroidism, chronic liver and kidney disease, scurvy, rheumatoid arthritis, leukemia, hyperparathyroidism, lymphoma, gastrointestinal disorders, celiac disease, and epilepsy can also cause osteoporosis, which is known as secondary osteoporosis. Secondary osteoporosis is also caused due to certain lifestyle factors, such as taking too much of alcohol and caffeine.
Osteogenesis imperfecta(OI) is a rare form of osteoporosis that is present at birth. OI is commonly caused by a defective gene that is responsible for the production of type 1 collagen, an important building component of the bone. OI causes bones to break without any apparent reason. However, the severity of OI depends on the specific gene defect.
Idiopathic osteoporosis includes- juvenile osteoporosis in children between the ages of 8 to 14 years. When it occurs, it is usually secondary to some disease such as rickets, eating disorders, or arthritis. In some cases, there is no known cause. Idiopathic osteoporosis involves too little bone formation or excessive bone loss is noticed. Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis usually goes away spontaneously. Treatment for secondary juvenile osteoporosis focuses on treating the underlying disorder.