It is important to understand and recognize the risk factors and symptoms of diabetes as many of these symptoms may seem harmless and can go undetected.
It is a condition that comes before type 2 diabetes. Blood glucose levels are higher than normal but aren’t high enough to be called it. Your physician can use three tests to find out if you have it:
1. The A1C test:
- The A1C test determines how your metabolism is working. A1C levels between 5.7% and 6.4% indicate that you have pre-diabetes
2. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test:
- FPG levels of 100mg/dL to 125mg/dL indicate that you have impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
3. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT):
- Glucose levels of 140mg/dL to 199mg/dL after an OGTT indicates that you have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and have pre-diabetes
If you have increased A1C, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), then you are considered as having pre-diabetes and are at an increased risk of getting it.
Research has confirmed that obesity reduces insulin’s ability to control blood glucose. In response, your body starts producing more insulin in an attempt to bring the blood glucose levels to normal. With the passage of time, your body suffers exhaustion from producing excess insulin and is therefore unable to keep blood glucose levels in the normal range, leading to pre-diabetes or it.
The risk of developing it increases, as people grow older. People who are over 40 and overweight are more likely to develop diabetes, although the incidence of type 2 diabetes in adolescents is also growing.
If your parents or siblings have type 1 or type 2 diabetes then you are at a greater risk of having it.
Race / Ethnicity
African American, Hispanics/Latinos, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asian American, and Pacific Islanders are more likely to develop it than Caucasians (whites). According to recent data, 12.6 percent of non-Hispanic blacks are diagnosed with it as compared to other races.
History of Gestational Diabetes
In it, blood glucose levels rise during pregnancy. In case you have it or give birth to a baby weighing > 9 pounds, it increases your risk of having pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes later in life.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
PCOS is a common condition in women with possible symptoms, such as irregular periods, acne, excessive facial hair, and the inability to get pregnant. According to recent data, women with PCOS show signs of insulin resistance, which leads to an increase in blood glucose levels. Screening for diabetes is recommended by age 30 in women who have PCOS.
1. Inactive lifestyle:
- Being physically active less than three times per week increases your risk of it. Physical activities increase your metabolism, your body cells use more glucose as they require more glucose for energy and therefore, help in reversing pre-diabetes and delaying type 2 diabetes
- Smoking increases your risk of it to a great extent as several research studies indicate that nicotine (an active component in cigarettes) can reduce insulin production and negatively affect insulin action, suggesting that nicotine could be a cause of the development of insulin resistance. Additionally, nicotine is believed to impact pancreatic beta-cells loss (cells responsible for producing insulin)
Patients with Hypertension, Low HDL, and High TG
If you are having high blood pressure, i.e.>140/90, it means your heart is working really very hard to pump blood throughout the body. Hypertension, along with it increases your risk of heart attack and stroke. Additionally, low HDL (good) cholesterol and high triglycerides further increase your risk of it.
Last Reviewed on: July 26, 2014
Reviewed By: Dr. Kanchan Anand, MD (Nephrology and Internal Medicine)